The dat Ontology

[Digital Archives Thesaurus Ontology]

Last Published: February 2015

Previous versions: 20141114 ; 20150123

This version in RDF/XML; in Turtle.

Authors:

Andrea Wei-Ching Huang, Chung-Hsi Hung, and Wan-Jung Shu, Keh-Jiann Chen, Tyng-Ruey Chuang, Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.

Contributors:

Sheng Ting, Academia Sinica Digital Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.

Introduction:

This document describes a beta ontology for publishing a collection in the Union Catalog of Digital Archives Taiwan as Linked Data. A Digital Archives Thesaurus (dat) is being designed for catalogs of the Chinese Artifacts. Examples demonstrated in this linked data prototype are drawn from 25 digital objects in five sub-catalogs, namely jade/stone artifacts , ceramic artifacts , metal artifacts , enamelware and glass artifacts, and bamboo/wood lacquerware .

Status:

12 classes and 20 properties are currently defined in this ontology. 12 properties reuse common vocabularies from DCMI Metadata Terms, Schema.org, and Simple Knowledge Organization System. In particular, we use the Relations for Reusing Ontology (R4R ontology) for data reusing purposes.

The dat ontology consists two parts, namely the core ontology and the curation ontology.

In this version, we remove many properties’ restrictions on domain and range mechanisms for possible reusing. For instance, the other 16 topic subjects may reuse some of properties even though the core 11 properties are now only employed for the Chinese Artifact. However, if the property is only designed for specific description, we keep the domain and range for its usage (e.g. dat:artifactType and dat:ceramicCharacteristics are only for Artifact descriptions.)

These features may be extended with more features for further collection employments (e.g. 16 other topic subjects in the Union Catalog of Digital Archives Taiwan: Anthropology, Archaeology, Archeology, Archives, Biology, Chinese Paintings & Calligraphy, Full Text of Rare Chinese Books, Geology, Language, Map & Remote Sensing, Multimedia, News, Rare & Manuscript Collections, Research Reusing, Resource Integration for Applications, Stone Rubbing).

Overview:

Note: Although concepts between dat and aat are highly related, the mapping tasks are not yet completed. Currently, concepts of Chinses Artifacts are directly represented by AAT concepts if they are skos:narrower related, or using dat representation. The implementation of using skos:narrower; skos:broader, and skos:related to represent their semantic relationships in this prototype is not yet ready for triple generation.

Namespace:

The dat Ontology IRI: http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology/

Prefix Namespace Description
aat http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/ Art & Architecture Thesaurus
dat http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology# Digital Archives Thesaurus Ontology
dcat http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat# Data Catalog Vocabulary
dct http://purl.org/dc/terms/ DCMI Metadata Terms
foaf http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/ FOAF Vocabulary Specification
prov http://www.w3.org/ns/prov# The PROV namespace
prv http://purl.org/net/provenance/ns# Provenance Vocabulary Core Ontology Specification
r4r http://guava.iis.sinica.edu.tw/r4r/ Relations for Reusing Ontology
rdf http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns# The RDF namespace [RDF-CONCEPTS]
rdfs http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema# The RDF Schema vocabulary
schema http://schema.org/ Schema.org
skos http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core# Simple Knowledge Organization System

CLASS

dat:Artifact dat:Concept dat:License dat:Tag dat:ObjectName dat:Provenance
dat:UnionCatalog dat:Source dcat:Dataset dat:RefDomains skos:Concept r4r:RRObject

PROPERTY

dat:artifactType dat:ceramicCharacteristics dat:describedSubject dat:decorationSubject
dat:designElement dat:hasTag dat:componentForm dat:style
dct:medium dct:instructionalMethod dct:created dct:title
schema:color schema:url r4r:isPartOf r4r:hasProvenance
r4r:hasLicense skos:narrower skos:broader skos:related

Class

1  Class Name:  Artifact
IRI: http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#Artifact
Labels: dat:Artifact ; [器物]
Definition: In this prototype, the class is for items archived in the catalog of the Chinese Artifacts. It is the core object of the current model. However, it can be used in other archives which have similar purposes.
Super-classes: dat:UnionCatalog
Property: dat:artifactType; dat:ceramicCharacteristics; dat:componentForm; dat:decorationSubject; dat:describedSubject; dat:designElement; dat:style; dct:created; dct:instructionalMethod; dct:medium; dct:title; r4r:hasProvenance; r4r:isPartOf; rdfs:subClassOf; schema:color; schema:url
See Also: Union Catalog
2  Class Name:  Concept
IRI: http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#Concept
Labels: dat:Concept ; [概念 (數位典藏索引典)]
Definition: The super class of the Digital Archives Thesaurus nodes with the type of concept.
Super-classes: skos:Concept
Property: dat:hasTag; skos:narrower; skos:broader; skos:related
3  Class Name:  License
IRI: http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#License
Labels: dat:License ; [授權]
4  Class Name:  Tag
IRI: http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#Tag
Labels: dat:Tag ; [標籤]
Definition: Keywords or terms which are extracted from the metadata of the archive collection by Chinese Knowledge and Information Processing (CKIP)/Chinese Word Segmentation System, and have been assigned and mapped to the concept nodes of the Digital Archives Thesaurus. For interoperability purposes, we adopt the value of dat:Tag that is relating to AAT as values in AAT Terms.
5  Class Name:  ObjectName
IRI: http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#ObjectName
Labels: dat:ObjectName ; [物件名稱]
Definition: The name of the core object of the current model that is the name or the title of the dat:Artifact. It can be used to describe in the same way for other implementations.
6  Class Name:  Provenance
IRI: http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#Provenance
Labels: dat:Provenance ; [後設資料溯源]
Definition: The current metadata of the Union Catalog of Digital Archives Taiwan is not ready to release. For the current provenance of each object, we adopt the concept of the prv:DataCreation as "the execution of an activity by which data items have been created." , and represent its semantics by including the metadata auto generated by d2R. The prv:DataCreation is sub-class of prov:Activity. For a more flexible use, we also recommend the use of the r4r:Provenance.
7  Class Name:  Source
IRI: http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#Source
Labels: dat:Source ; [源點]
Definition: In this prototype, it refers to the original URL of the dat:Artifact from the union catalog of the Chinese Artifacts. However, it can be used in other systems that wish to describe the similar concept or the original source that derives the current digital object.
8  Class Name:  UnionCatalog
IRI: http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#UnionCatalog
Labels: dat:UnionCatalog ; [聯合目錄]
Definition: Collections of catalogs in Digital Archives Taiwan.
9  Class Name:  dcat:Dataset
IRI: http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#Dataset
Labels: dcat:Dataset ; [資料集]
Super-classes: r4r:RRObject
10  Class Name:  dat:RefDomains
IRI: http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#RefDomains
Labels: dat:RefDomains ; [參照專業概念詞彙]
Definition: In most cases the value of the concept for the Digital Archives Taiwan items will be dat:Concept since these concepts are mainly extracted from keywords, terms or tags the metadata with specific and oriental culture semantics. However, we don't omit the semantical relations with other domain-specific concepts such as AAT,Anthropology Thesaurus; Food and Agriculture Organization Thesaurus; General Multilingual Environmental Thesaurus; GESIS: Social science thesaurus; Historical Thesaurus; NASA Thesaurus; The AFS Ethnographic Thesaurus; Thesaurus For Graphic Materials; UK Archival Thesaurus; UN Bibliographic Information System Thesaurus; UNESCO THESAURUS; UNESCO-IBE Education Thesaurus; and World Bank Thesaurus. Extensions of the dat:Concept may be extended through the dat:RefDomains (reference domains) that represents an area of specific meaning within the given context of the topics.
11  Class Name:  skos:Concept
IRI: http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#Concept
Labels: skos:Concept ; [SKOS概念]
12  Class Name:  r4r:RRObject
IRI: http://guava.iis.sinica.edu.tw/r4r/rrobject
Labels: r4r:RRObject ; [重複使用相關物件]

Property

1  Property Name:  artifactType
IRI http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#artifactType
Label: dat:ArtifactType ; [器物類型]
Definition: The property relates the digital object with the concept describing the type and the form of the physical object which are made or created.
Has domain: dat:Artifact
Has range: dat:Concept or dat:RefDomains
2  Property Name:  ceramicCharacteristics
IRI http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#ceramicCharacteristics
Label: dat:ceramicCharacteristics ; [陶瓷性狀描述]
Definition: The property relates the digital object with the concept describing the special types and characteristics of the pottery and porcelain.
Has domain: dat:Artifact
Has range: dat:Concept or dat:RefDomains
3  Property Name:  componentForm
IRI http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#componentForm
Label: dat:componentForm ; [(器物)局部形制]
Definition: The property relates the digital object with the concept describing parts or components of the physical object which are made or created under some conditional limitations.
4  Property Name:  describedSubject
IRI http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#describedSubject
Label: dat:describedSubject ; [(物件或裝飾)描繪對象]
Definition: The property relates the digital object with the concept describing the subject of the physical object.
5  Property Name:  decorationSubject
IRI http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#decorationSubject
Label: dat:decorationSubject ; [(器物)裝飾主題]
Definition: This property relates the digital object with the concept describing subjects used for decoration purposes.
6  Property Name:  designElement
IRI http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#designElement
Label: dat:designElement ; [設計主題]
Definition: This property relates the digital object with the concept describing elements used for design purposes.
7  Property Name:  hasTag
IRI http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#hasTag
Label: dat:hasTag ; [具有標籤]
Definition: This relation describes that the concept node is composed by tags which are generated by the collection content, filtered by experts and may be mapped to the dat:RefDomains.
Has domain: dat:Concept
Has range: dat:Tag
8  Property Name:  style
IRI http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#style
Label: dat:style ; [(器物)風格]
Definition: This property relates the digital object with the concept describing the style of the creation.
9  Property Name:  dct:medium
IRI http://purl.org/dc/terms/medium
Label: dct:medium ; [使用材料]
Definition: This property relates the digital object with the concept describing the material used for making the physical object.
10  Property Name:  dct:instructionalMethod
IRI http://purl.org/dc/terms/instructionalMethod
Label: dct:instructionalMethod ; [使用技術]
Definition: This property relates the digital object with the concept describing the method used for making the physical object.
11  Property Name:  dct:created
IRI http://purl.org/dc/terms/created
Label: dct:created ; [創作時代]
Definition: This property relates the digital object with the concept describing the time of the creation of the physical object.
12  Property Name:  dct:title
IRI http://purl.org/dc/terms/title
Label: dct:title ; [標題]
Definition: This property relates the digital object with the concept describing the time of the creation of the physical object.
Has range: dat:ObjectName
13  Property Name:  schema:color
IRI http://schema.org/color
Label: schema:color ; [色彩描述]
Definition: The property relates the digital object with the concept describing the name of the color, lightness or darkness, and sometimes may include the feeling of the color like the warmth and coolness of the color used.
14  Property Name:  schema:url
IRI http://schema.org/url
Label: schema:url
Has range: dat:Source
15  Property Name:  r4r:isPartOf
IRI http://guava.iis.sinica.edu.tw/r4r/isPartof
Label: r4r:isPartOf ; [為其一部份]
Definition: The property used here is to relate the digital object for reusing purpose. It describes the partial relationship between the digital object and its dataset while at the same time further constraints their temporal and spatial relations.
16  Property Name:  r4r:hasProvenance
IRI http://guava.iis.sinica.edu.tw/r4r/hasProvenance
Label: r4r:hasProvenance ; [具有後設資料溯源資訊]
Definition: The property used here is to relate the digital object for reusing purpose. It describes the digital object has metadata. For current practice, the original metadata of the object is not ready to release. However, the basic provenance information that is auto generated by the d2R tool for publishing semantic links of the object can be described.
17  Property Name:  r4r:hasLicense
IRI http://guava.iis.sinica.edu.tw/r4r/hasLicense
Label: r4r:hasLicense ; [具有授權]
18  Property Name:  skos:broader
IRI http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#broader
Label: skos:broader
19  Property Name:  skos:narrower
IRI http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#narrower
Label: skos:narrower
20  Property Name:  skos:related
IRI http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#related
Label: skos:related

Examples

Example 1: The core of the dat ontology describes a Chinese bottle for its artifact types, several component forms and design elements as follow:
@prefix aat:     <http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/> .
@prefix dat:     <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/ontology#> .
@prefix dcat:    <http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#> .
@prefix dct:     <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .
@prefix foaf:    <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> .
@prefix prov:    http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#> .
@prefix prv:     <http://purl.org/net/provenance/ns#> .
@prefix r4r:     <http://guava.iis.sinica.edu.tw/r4r/> .
@prefix rdf:     <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix rdfs:    <http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#> .
@prefix schema:  <http://schema.org/> .
@prefix void:    <http://rdfs.org/ns/void#> .

<http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/resource/Artifact/3345302>
rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/data/Artifact/3345302> ;
dat:artifactType <http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300010898> , <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800003040> , <http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300311497> ;
dat:componentForm <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800000894> , <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800001232> , <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800001300> , <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800001099> , <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800000918> , <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800001212> , <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800001165> , <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800001285> , <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800001237> ;
dat:designElement <http://vocab.getty.edu/aat/300253899> ,         <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800000697> , <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800000813> ;
dct:instructionalMethod
<http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800001785> .
  


Example 2: The curation part of the dat ontology describes the same Chinese bottle for its provenance, relation to the dataset, the time of its creation, and its source and possible reusing mechanism as follow:
<http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/resource/Artifact/3345302>
rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/data/Artifact/3345302> ;
r4r:hasProvenance <http://trdf.sourceforge.net/provenance/ns.html#DataCreation> ;
r4r:isPartOf <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/data/Dataset/10000001> ;
dct:created <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/Concept/800001988> ;
dct:title "明末清初 銅胎琺瑯獸面紋方鼎式爐" ;
schema:url <http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/item/00/33/0b/96.html> ;
foaf:page <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/page/Artifact/3345302> .
  


Example 3: The semantic representation of this Chinese bottle is part of the 25 item dataset, and its associated publication like article, slides, and ontology code are ready for anyone to reuse. Therefore the dataset: 10000001 using the Relations for Reusing Ontology (R4R ontology) is represented as follow:
<http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/resource/Dataset/10000001>
rdfs:subClassOf <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/resource/R4R/10000001> .
<http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/resource/Article/10000001>
rdfs:subClassOf <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/resource/R4R/10000001> .
<http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/resource/R4R/10000001>
      a       r4r:rrobject ;
rdfs:isDefinedBy <http://dat.digitalarchives.tw/data/R4R/10000001> ;
rdfs:label "A Linked Data Prototype for the Union Catalog of Digital Archives Taiwan" ;
rdfs:superClassOf r4r:rrobject ;
r4r:hasLicense <http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/> ;
r4r:hasProvenance "Citation Information" , <http://trdf.sourceforge.net/provenance/ns.html#DataCreation> ;
r4r:hasTime "November 2014" ;